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These combine offshore power generation with desalination plants.First demonstrated in the 2010s, significant numbers are now being deployed in tropical coastal areas, where conditions are ideal for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC).Where possible, references have been provided to support the predictions.Future Timeline is an ongoing, collaborative project that is open for discussion – we welcome ideas from scientists, futurists, inventors, writers and anyone else interested in futurology.In particular, neighbouring Bangladesh requires ever more financial support and humanitarian aid, as flooding worsens.* Widespread automation and technological unemployment are also emerging.By the 2050s, India's growth has begun to stagnate, as the world faces a crisis unparalleled in history.** Fusion power is nearing commercial availability A prototype commercial fusion reactor is nearing operation.* DEMO (DEMOnstration Power Plant) is the successor to ITER and is designed to build on the success of that project, achieving a number of new breakthroughs.These islands also feature housing developments, fish farms, greenhouses and eco-tourism complexes, in addition to the water and power production facilities. Deep ocean mining operations are widespread Exploitation of the ocean for its resources had for centuries been confined to fishing and coastal developments.
By the 2000s, the only resource being mined in bulk from the ocean was diamonds, and even then, just a few hundred metres below the surface.India has also managed to avoid many of the disruptive challenges experienced by China, since its market-based economy is already part of a liberal democracy, unlike the planned economy of its rival.India's currency, the rupee, is now challenging the renminbi as the world's strongest.In the past, retrieval operations were limited to manganese nodules (resource-rich rock concretions found on the ocean floor) and metal-rich sediments around hydrothermal vents.Now, thanks to new extraction methods and processing techniques, even the low concentrations of elements found in mud layers are economically viable.2040 India's economy is rivalling that of China and the U. By 2040, rapid economic growth has enabled India to catch up with China and the U. These three countries – the "G3" – now have by far the largest share of world GDP.** India has benefitted from a number of cultural, economic and demographic trends in recent decades.* This includes a youthful, growing and economically productive population,* now the world's largest at 1.6 billion,* with an average age of just 34.By comparison, China's average age is 46 and its working population has been declining.* Expansion and development of India's service sector – adding greatly to the global knowledge-based economy – has occurred in parallel with a slowdown in China's growth as its economy matures.Higher global temperatures are causing lakes, wells and reservoirs to run dry, even as populations continue to rise.One strategy being used to alleviate this crisis involves compact, floating "energy islands".Later this decade, it will produce a sustained output of 2 gigawatts (GW), making fusion commercially available for the first time.* "Energy islands" are widespread in coastal regions Many countries have suffered chronic water shortages due to the effects of climate change and overpopulation.This is has been a particular problem in developing regions.