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The 2002 National Victim Association Academy defines an additional form of stalking: The vengeance/terrorist stalker.Both the vengeance stalker and terrorist stalker (the latter sometimes called the political stalker) do not, in contrast with some of the aforementioned types of stalkers, seek a personal relationship with their victims but rather force them to emit a certain response.43% of male stalking victims stated that the offender was female, while 41% of male victims stated that the offender was another male.
These are: However, a January 2009 report from the United States Department of Justice reports that "Males were as likely to report being stalked by a male as a female offender.A UK Home Office research study on the use of the Protection from Harassment Act stated: "The study found that the Protection from Harassment Act is being used to deal with a variety of behaviour such as domestic and inter-neighbour disputes.It is rarely used for stalking as portrayed by the media since only a small minority of cases in the survey involved such behaviour." According to Lamber Royakkers: "Stalking is a form of mental assault, in which the perpetrator repeatedly, unwantedly, and disruptively breaks into the life-world of the victim, with whom they have no relationship (or no longer have).She also mentions coercive control theory, "future research will be needed to determine if this theory can predict how changes in social structures and gender-specific norms will result in variations in rates of stalking for men versus women over time in the United States and across the world." Stalkers may have pre-existing psychotic disorders such as delusional disorder, schizoaffective disorder, or schizophrenia.Most stalkers are nonpsychotic and may exhibit disorders or neuroses such as major depression, adjustment disorder, or substance dependence, as well as a variety of Axis II personality disorders (such as antisocial, borderline, dependent, narcissistic, or paranoid).The term stalking is used with some differing definitions in psychiatry and psychology, as well as in some legal jurisdictions as a term for a criminal offense. Stalking can be defined as the willful and repeated following, watching and/or harassing of another person.Unlike other crimes, which usually involve one act, stalking is a series of actions that occur over a period of time.With rejected stalkers, the continual clinging to a relationship of an inadequate or dependent person couples with the entitlement of the narcissistic personality, and the persistent jealousy of the paranoid personality.In contrast, resentful stalkers demonstrate an almost "pure culture of persecution", with delusional disorders of the paranoid type, paranoid personalities, and paranoid schizophrenia. As discussed above, these specific (apparently stalking) behaviors may have multiple motivations.two phone calls to a stranger, two gifts, following the victim then phoning them, etc.The Violence Against Women Act of 2005, amending a United States statute, 108 Stat.