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In 2007, scientists found the rare paternal haplogroup A1 in several living British men with Yorkshire surnames.
This clade is today almost exclusively found among males in West Africa, where it is also rare.
She is thought to have been an unpaid bonded servant or slave, Early in the 16th century, Catherine of Aragon likely brought servants from Africa among her retinue when she travelled to England to marry Henry VIII.
A black musician is among the six trumpeters depicted in the royal retinue of Henry VIII in the Westminster Tournament Roll, an illuminated manuscript dating from 1511.
Black residents constituted around 3 per cent of the United Kingdom's population in 2011.
The figures have increased from just under 1.15 million residents in 2001, or 2 per cent of the population, to just over 1.9 million in 2011.
They are generally the descendants of black people who lived in England in the 18th century and freed Black American slaves who fought for the Crown in the American Revolutionary War (see also Black Loyalists).
In 1787, hundreds of London's black poor (a category that included the East Indian seamen known as lascars) agreed to go to this West African colony on the condition that they would retain the status of British subjects, live in freedom under the protection of the British Crown, and be defended by the Royal Navy.
As of the 2011 UK Census, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) and the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) allow people in England and Wales and Northern Ireland who self-identify as "Black" to select "Black African", "Black Caribbean" or "Any other Black/African/Caribbean background" tick boxes.When trade lines began to open between London and West Africa, persons from this area began coming to Britain on board merchant and slaving ships.For example, merchant John Lok brought several captives to London in 1555 from Guinea.He wears the royal livery and is mounted on horseback.The man is generally identified as the "John Blanke, the blacke trumpeter," who is listed in the payment accounts of both Henry VIII and his father, Henry VII.Making this fresh start with them were many white people, including lovers, wives, and widows of the black men.There is evidence of the presence in Roman Britain of residents from multiethnic Romanised North Africa.Racism intensified with the continued rise of the slave trade, which had become entrenched.Reacting to the darker complexion of people with biracial parentage, George Best argued in 1578 that black skin was not related to the heat of the sun (in Africa) but was instead caused by biblical damnation.Archaeological inscriptions suggest that most of these inhabitants were involved with the military.However, some were in the upper echelons of society.