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Most atoms are neutral overall, with the number of protons equaling the number of electrons.

If there is an unequal number of protons and electrons, the atom has a charge (positive or negative), and it is called an ion. Mass number is the sum of the number of protons plus neutrons.

Once this rate is known, geologists can estimate the length of time over which decay has been occurring by measuring the amount of radioactive parent element and the amount of stable daughter elements.

The quantities and masses of atoms and isotopes are measured using an instrument called a mass spectrometer.

Of these, U-238 is by far the most abundant (99.2739%).

As uranium-238 decays to lead, there are 13 intermediate radioactive daughter products formed (including radon, polonium, and other isotopes of uranium), along with 8 alpha particles and 6 beta particles released.

Atomic number of an atom = number of protons in the nucleus of that atom. The mass number may vary for an element, because of a differing number of neutrons. Radioactive decay occurs by releasing particles and energy.

Each radioactive element decays at its own nearly constant rate.

The proportion of parent to daughter tells us the number of half-lives, which we can use to find the age in years.

For example, if there are equal amounts of parent and daughter (such as 500 atoms of both carbon-14 and nitrogen-14 in the graph above), then one half-life has passed.

The mass spectrometer came into use after WWI (1918).

This led to the discovery of more than 200 isotopes.

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