Stone clay dating
Ball games at the time of Jamestown’s settlement used different sizes and types of balls, which were usually stuffed leather or cloth, wood, or ivory.
Though not as common, clay balls are also known, such as the two found in an English hoard of toys dating 1570-1630.
Poverty Point in Georgia, which was occupied 2000 B. Because many of the early sites containing clay cooking balls do not include pottery, it is believed that the use of clay balls for indirect cooking came before the production of pottery; but researchers are still debating this point. “Baked Clay Objects from the Site of the 1670 Settlement at Charles Towne, South Carolina,” Notebook 2:1, 3-17.
“Cook-stone cuisine” has also been recorded in California and Mexico. Simms’ research included microanalysis of residues on some of the balls, which were hand-formed in similar sizes to the Jamestown examples. Microanalysis of fired clay balls from the Puuc region, Yucantán, Mexico.” Journal of Archaeological Science 40, 1144-1157.
All the Jamestown balls have been smoothed on the exterior but some are not perfectly rounded, which would have made rolling them in a game very difficult.
In addition, some of the balls are scorched from exposure to flame and some show signs of sooting.
Two of the contexts were disturbed by later activities on the site, but the remaining six areas of the fort are believed to have been filled in 1610 with the detritus of everyday life.
One of the balls is much smaller than the rest, measuring only 0.75” in diameter, and is considered to have been used in a game like marbles.
Evidence for cook-stone cuisine has been documented on native sites beginning in the Late Archaic period throughout North America. It is not known how these three-inch-diameter balls were used and it is even possible that they had once served as the cores of balls that had been covered with another material.At least 18 examples are represented in the seventy-four clay ball fragments that have been recovered from eight distinct contexts of James Fort.(Photo: Sagnlandet Lejre)Danish Stone Age settlements may turn out to be hundreds, perhaps thousands, of years younger than we thought.A physicist from Aarhus University has together with archaeologists at the Gottorp Castle Museum in Northern Germany made a startling discovery: if ancient people prepared their fish in clay vessels, it’s impossible to date this accurately.But an error of 2,000 years is of great importance,” says Riede.Before they started on the research project, the archaeologists were fully aware that dating of fish is subject to a large margin of error.They just didn’t know how big it was, nor how fish affect the Carbon-14 contents in the clay vessels that they were prepared in.When small, hand-molded and low-fired clay balls started showing up in the James Fort excavations in 2003, Jamestown Rediscovery staff wondered if they were used by the colonists for entertainment.Henry Wriothesley, the third Earl of Southampton and Virginia Company shareholder, is said to have played bowls twice a week “in the company of thirty or forty knights and gentlemen” (Emerson 1996, 209).In 1611, Sir Thomas Dale purportedly found colonists “bowling in the streets” of Jamestown instead of working at productive tasks.